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In the west Azerbaijan’s border upon Armenia stretches for a distance of 123 kilometers, in the north it borders upon Tovuz Rayon, in the north-east and east upon Shamkir and Dashkasan rayons of Azerbaijan. Gadabay Rayon is located in a zone of midlands and highlands of the Lesser Caucasus. Its territory includes the northern parts of Shahdagh Mount, a part of Bashkend-Dastafur concavity and Shamkir massif. The most highest heights are: Goshabulag (3549 m), Godzhadagh (2217 m ) and Garaarkhadzh (3549). Drainage of the rayon is significantly poor. Akhinja, Zayam and Shamkir are the largest rivers. Mountain-forest, mountain-meadow and other grounds spread here. Mountain shrubland and rare forest meadows in midlands, broad-leaved forests, subalpine and alpine meadows at the top of mountains occupy the greatest territory of rayon. Depositions of the Jurassic, Paleogene, Quaternary and other periods cover the surface of rayon. Gadabay rayon is rich of its underground resources such as gold, uranium, copper and other mineral resources. Goldfield in Soyudlu was explored by the Siemens brothers until arrival of Red Army soldiers in 1920.  At present there is opened a factory producing gold, where work about 2000 workers. Gadabay rayon is also famous for its mineral waters, such as “Narzan”, “Mor-Mor”, “Chaldash”, “Turshsu” and “Soyudlu narzani” (in Soyudlu village). Gadabay is within the middle and high mountain ranges of the Small Caucasus. Region of Gadabay covers the northern incline of the Shahdagh Ridge, the Bashkand-Dastafur basin and some part of the Shamkir mountain range. Goshabulak (3549 m.), Gocadagh (3317 m.) and others are the highest peak. Within the area Jurassic, Tabashir, Paleogene and Anthropogenic sediments are spread. There are black and white marble stones. Summer is dry and there is a mild heat and in the winter there is a dry mountainous tundra climate. The waterway network is tight. The Akhyncachay and Zayam waterways stream through this region. Within the south-western border of the area, the upper stream of Shamkirchay flows through. Gray mountain forest, meadow soils are spread. The region contains a well-known Red State Nature Reserve and four natural monuments – Govdu, Godakdara, Gamish and Shamlik. There is a beautiful waterfall at Kechidarasi cliff. Goat, sparrows, roe deer and Ayubbulaq as well as Chaldash, Gizilca Narzan, Mor-mor mineral water springs can also observed. Within the mountains, in the forests and valleys of the locale, animal and plant life is very rich. Gadabay locale is in the middle and high mountain ranges of the Small Caucasus. The district is located in the northern part of the Shahdagh ridge, the Bashkend-Dizafur depression and the Shamkir mountain range

The waterway network is tight. Gadabay is rich in minerals and table water springs such as Mormor, Turshsu, Koroglu, Prince, Narzan, Big Bulak and others. The main waterways are Akimca, Zayam, Inakbogan, Mamasen, Shamkir, Gadabay Cahri and others.